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Immunization

Typhoid (TYVI) vaccine

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​​​​​​​​​​Immunization protects you from disease.
​​Get protected, get immunized.

  • Vaccines make your immune system stronger. They build antibodies to help prevent diseases.
  • Immunization is safe. It's much safer to get immunized than to get this disease.​

What is the typhoid vaccine?

The typhoid vaccine protects against typhoid fever caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. The typhoid vaccine given by injection (needle) is called TYVI.

Who should have the TYVI vaccine?

This vaccine is given to:

  • adults and children age 2 years or older who are close contacts of anyone who can spread typhoid
  • some lab workers

Talk to a public health nurse to find out if you can get typhoid vaccine for free.

You may also benefit from the vaccine if you travel to an area that has a high risk of typhoid. If you’re getting the vaccine because of travel, it’s not free.

If you can’t get the vaccine for free, check with your health insurance provider to see if your plan covers the cost.

How many doses do I need?

You need 1 dose. You may need another dose every 2 to 3 years. Check with your healthcare provider.

Are there other vaccines that protect against typhoid disease?

There are other vaccines that protect against typhoid. They’re commonly for travellers. If you had another typhoid vaccine, such as oral (you take it by mouth) typhoid vaccine or hepatitis A and typhoid combined vaccine (Vivaxim), you may not need this vaccine. Check with your healthcare provider to find out if you need another dose. Some typhoid vaccines last longer than others.

How well does the vaccine work?

After you get this vaccine, protection is about 50%. Protection weakens over time.

If you travel to areas with a high risk of typhoid, you must be very careful with food and water even if you’ve had this vaccine.

Where can I get the TYVI vaccine?

If you need the vaccine because of your work (such as some lab workers), talk to your workplace health and safety department.

If you can get this vaccine for free, contact the public health office in your area.

If you’re travelling to an area that has a high risk of typhoid, contact a travel health clinic. You can also talk to your doctor or pharmacist about typhoid vaccine and how to be careful with food and water when you travel.

Are there side effects from the TYVI vaccine?

There can be side effects from the TYVI vaccine, but they tend to be mild and go away in a few days. Side effects may include:

  • redness, swelling, or feeling sore where you had the needle
  • feeling tired
  • headache
  • fever
  • body aches
  • feeling sick to your stomach (nausea), vomiting, or loose stool (diarrhea)
  • feeling itchy

It’s important to stay at the clinic for 15 minutes after your vaccine. Some people may have a rare but serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. If anaphylaxis happens, you will get medicine to treat the symptoms.

It’s rare to have a serious side effect. Call Health Link at 811 to report any serious or unusual side effects.

How can I manage side effects?

  • To help with soreness and swelling, put a cool, wet cloth over the area where you had the needle.
  • There is medicine to help with fever or pain. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you aren’t sure what medicine or dosage to take. Follow the directions on the package.
  • Children under the age of 18 years should not take aspirin because it can cause serious health problems.
  • Some people with health problems, such as a weak immune system, must call their doctor if they get a fever. If you’ve been told to do this, call your doctor even if you think the fever is from the vaccine.

Who should not have the TYVI vaccine?

You may not be able to have the vaccine if you:

  • have an allergy to parts of the vaccine
  • had a severe or unusual side effect after this vaccine or one like it
Check with your doctor or a public health nurse before you get the vaccine.

You can still have the vaccine if you have a mild illness such as a cold or fever. Always tell your healthcare provider if you have allergies or if you’ve had a side effect from a vaccine in the past.

Facts about typhoid fever

What is typhoid fever?
Tyhpoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Symptoms include fever, cough, headache, weakness, poor appetite, stomach pain, constipation (trouble having a bowel movement) or loose stool (diarrhea), and sometimes a rash. Symptoms vary from mild to severe.

  • One out of 20 people can have a long-term (chronic) infection.
  • If you have a chronic infection, you can carry the bacteria for months or years and spread it to others, even if you don’t look or feel sick.
  • In developing countries, as many as 1 out of 10 people die if they get typhoid.
  • In Canada, or countries with more advanced medical care, less than 1 out of 100 people die.
Who is most at risk?
People who travel to countries with poor sanitation (such as South Asia) have the highest risk of getting typhoid, especially:

  • children
  • long-term travellers
  • people staying in homes of friends or relatives
  • people who have low stomach acid because of medicine or a health condition

People with certain health conditions, such as no spleen, have a higher risk of serious illness.

How does it spread?
Typhoid spreads by infected urine or stool getting onto hands or into food and water, and then into the mouth.

Common foods that may spread typhoid include:

  • unsafe (contaminated) water
  • shellfish especially oysters from contaminated areas
  • raw fruits and vegetables that have been fertilized with stool
  • contaminated milk and milk products

Current as of: October 28, 2020

Author: Provincial Immunization Program, Alberta Health Services