Respiratory Distress Observation Scale (RDOS)
Dyspnea is one of the most common symptoms at the end of life, yet it is common to find patients who are unable to quantify their respiratory distress. The RDOS is a practical tool to quantify the level of respiratory distress in a population with severe cognitive impairment.
Campbell ML (2008) Psychometric testing of a respiratory distress observation scale. J Palliat Med; 11:44–50.
Campbell, M. L., T. Templin, et al. (2010). A Respiratory Distress Observation Scale for patients unable to self-report dyspnea. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(3): 285-290
Borg Dyspnea Scale
The Borg scale is a psychophysical measure in which subject reports symptoms associated with a current physical activity, e.g. exercise. The Borg scale rates dyspnea on a scale of 0-10 to quantify the intensity of dyspnea during activity. The 0-10 scale is the "modified" Borg scale; the original perceived exertion scale was scored from 6-20 (corresponding to heart rate range of 60-200). The modified Borg scale as a perceived symptom scale can be used to rate various symptoms associated with exercise (e.g. breathlessness, muscle fatigue, etc.).
Borg G, (1970). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand.j. Rehab., Wed. 2:92-98.
Borg,G., Psychophysical basis of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982; 14:377-81.
Elliott MW, Adams L, Cockcroft A, Macrae KD, Murphy K and Guz A (1991). The language of breathlessness. Am Rev Respir Dis; 144: 826-32.