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Immunizations

Overview

What are immunizations?

Immunizations save lives. They are the best way to help protect you or your child from certain infectious diseases. They also help reduce the spread of disease to others and prevent epidemics. Most are given with a needle. They are sometimes called vaccines, or vaccinations.

In many cases when you get a vaccine, you get a tiny amount of a weakened or dead form of the organism that causes the disease. This amount is not enough to give you the actual disease. But it is enough to cause your immune system to make antibodies and cells that can recognize and attack the organism if you are ever exposed to it.

Sometimes a vaccine does not completely prevent the disease, but it will make the disease much less serious if you do get it.

Some immunizations are needed only one time. Others require several doses over time to help your body be able to fight the disease (build immunity).

What are some reasons to get immunized?

  • Immunizations protect you or your child from dangerous diseases.
  • They help reduce the spread of disease to others.
  • They may be needed for entrance into school or daycare. And they may be needed for employment or for travel to another country.
  • The risk of getting a disease is much greater than the risk of having a serious reaction to the vaccine.
  • When immunization rates drop below a certain level, preventable diseases show up again. Often these diseases are hard to treat. For example, measles outbreaks still occur in Canada.

If you are planning to get pregnant, talk to your healthcare provider about what immunizations you have had and what you may need to protect your baby. And if you live with someone who is pregnant, make sure your vaccines are up-to-date. See Immunizations and Pregnancy for more Information.

If you need immunizations for travel to other countries, contact a travel health clinic or talk to your doctor or pharmacist at least 6 weeks before you leave. They will let you know if you need any vaccines or other medicines.

What immunizations are recommended for children and adolescents?

Childhood immunization schedules may vary in each province and territory. Ask your healthcare provider what vaccines your child should get. Other vaccines may be recommended too, if your child has certain health problems.

The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends a specific childhood immunization schedule, but recommendations may also come from the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) or your provincial or territorial ministry of health. Commonly recommended immunizations include:footnote 1

  • Meningococcal disease.
  • Varicella (Chickenpox).
  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).
  • Influenza (flu).
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, or Hib disease.
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella.
  • Pneumococcal disease.
  • Polio.
  • Rotavirus.

Immunizations start right after birth, and many are given throughout a baby's first 23 months. Booster doses (the later doses of any vaccines that need to be repeated over time) occur throughout life.

Fewer immunizations are needed after age 6, but older children and adolescents need immunizations too. Talk with your healthcare provider about the specific vaccines that your child or teenager may need. Some immunizations are also given during adulthood (such as diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine).

It is important to keep a good record, including a list of any reactions to the vaccines. When you enroll your child in daycare or school, you may need to show proof of immunizations. Your child may also need the record later in life for university, employment, or travel.

Talk to your healthcare provider if you or your child plans to be in a group living situation, like a university dormitory or summer camp. You may want certain immunizations, like those for meningococcal disease.

What vaccines are recommended for adults?

The vaccines you need as an adult depend not only on your age, lifestyle, overall health, pregnancy status, and travel plans but also on who you are in close contact with and what vaccines you had as a child.

Talk to your healthcare provider about which vaccines you need. Immunizations recommended for adults include:

  • Influenza (flu).
  • Tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster.
  • Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (dTap) booster.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide (PNEUMO-P).

What are the side effects of vaccines?

Most side effects from vaccines are minor, if they occur at all. Ask your healthcare provider about the reactions that could occur. They may include:

  • Redness, mild swelling, or soreness where the immunization was given.
  • A slight fever.
  • Drowsiness, getting upset easily, and poor appetite.
  • A mild rash up to 6 weeks after chickenpox or measles-mumps-rubella vaccines.
  • Temporary joint and muscle pain.

Severe reactions, such as trouble breathing are rare. If you or your child has an unusual reaction, call your doctor.

See the following pages for more information about reactions that can happen after immunizations.

How safe are vaccines?

False claims in the news have made some parents concerned about a link between autism and the measles, mumps, and rubella immunization. But studies have found no link between vaccines and autism.footnote 2, footnote 3

Some parents question whether mercury-containing thimerosal (used as a preservative in some vaccines) might cause autism. Studies have not found a link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.footnote 4 Today, all routine childhood vaccines made for Canada contain either no thimerosal or only trace amounts.footnote 5

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Childhood Immunizations

Recommended immunizations

Childhood immunization recommendations and schedules may vary by province and territory. Immunizations are recommended because they protect against diseases (give immunity) or make a disease less severe if your child does get it. These schedules outline the immunizations and booster shots needed from birth through age 18, as well as when catch-up immunizations should be given.

The schedule for a premature infant is the same as for a full-term infant. But sometimes the hepatitis B vaccine is delayed.

Many immunizations require more than one dose, given at varying intervals. Although your child does not need to restart the series if a scheduled dose is missed, the immunization should be given as soon as possible. Consult your health professional or public health unit if your child missed an immunization or to find out whether your child needs a specific immunization.

The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends a specific childhood immunization schedule, but recommendations may also come from the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) or your provincial or territorial ministry of health. Commonly recommended immunizations include:footnote 6

Chickenpox (varicella)

This shot protects against chickenpox.

Who should get it?

  • All children 12 months of age and older who have not had chickenpox should get one dose at 12 to 15 months of age. Another dose may be given at a later time in some provinces.

The combination MMRV shot is available in some provinces and may be given in place of the chickenpox vaccine. The vaccines for chickenpox, measles, mumps, and rubella are all in this one shot.

Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP)

This shot (immunization) protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis).

Who should get it?

  • All children are given five doses—one at age 2 months, one at 4 months, one at 6 months, one at 18 months, and one at 4 to 6 years.
  • The first four doses may include the polio and Hib vaccines (DTaP-IPV-Hib).

Influenza (flu)

This immunization helps protect against influenza. Influenza viruses are always changing, so the influenza vaccines are updated every year.

Who should get it?

  • Canadian provinces and territories have different recommendations about who should get a yearly influenza vaccine. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) and the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) suggest that everyone older than 6 months of age have an influenza vaccine once a year. But it is especially important for people who have a high risk of having complications from the flu, including:footnote 7, footnote 8
    • All children 6 through 59 months of age.
    • Children 24 months and older, especially those with certain medical conditions (such as asthma, chronic heart or lung disorders, or an impaired immune system).
    • Close contacts, including household contacts and out-of-home caregivers, of children 59 months of age and younger and of children 24 months and older who are at high risk for complications from influenza.

If your child is not high risk, you may have to pay for the influenza vaccine.

For more information about influenza, see the topic Influenza (Seasonal Flu). For the most current Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines, go to www.fightflu.ca.

This shot protects against a bacteria that can cause an infection in the lungs (pneumonia) or the covering of the brain (meningitis), skin and bone infections, and other serious illnesses in young children. It does not protect against viral influenza (flu).

Who should get it?

  • All children need three or four doses, starting at 2 months of age and ending by 18 months of age.
  • Children who are older than 5 years and have certain health conditions may also need this shot.
  • This shot may be given in combination with the diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), and polio vaccines (DTaP-IPV-Hib).

Hepatitis B (Hep B)

This shot protects against hepatitis B.

Who should get it?

  • All babies need three to four doses. The first dose may be given right after birth (before leaving the hospital) or at age 2 months. If the mother has tested positive for hepatitis B, it is given within 12 hours of birth. The remaining doses are given by 6 to 12 months of age, depending on the vaccine used. Children who have not been immunized for hepatitis B and are age 18 or younger can get the shots over a period of about 6 months.

Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)

This shot protects against measles, mumps, and rubella.

Who should get it?

  • All children need one dose at 12 months of age and a second dose after 15 months. To make it easy on parents, some provinces and territories may recommend that the second shot is given with other vaccines: at 18 months or between 4 and 6 years of age, before starting school.

There is a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) shot that also protects against chickenpox (varicella). Talk to your child's doctor about the pros and cons of the MMRV shot. It can be given to children ages 12 months to 12 years.

Meningococcal disease

This shot protects against meningitis and blood infections (sepsis).

Who should get it?

  • Children may get the vaccine starting at 2 months of age. Provincial guidelines or your doctor's recommendations determine the ages the shot is given. All children should get a booster dose at 12 to 24 months of age even if they were vaccinated as a baby.
  • In children ages 1 to 4 years, a single dose can be given, and it may be considered for children age 5 and older who have not been immunized.

Children 2 and older who have a high risk for getting and having severe problems from meningitis should also have another type of meningococcal vaccine. These children include those who have a damaged or missing spleen or who have certain immune system problems.

Pneumococcal infections

This shot protects against meningitis, blood infections (sepsis), pneumonia, and ear infections.footnote 9

Who should get it?

  • Depending on the recommendations of your province, children get 3 or 4 doses starting at 2 months of age.
  • Children who did not get the shot as babies can get catch-up doses up to age 5.
  • Children ages 5 to 18 may need the shot if they did not get it as a baby or if they have certain medical conditions that make them high risk for getting a pneumococcal infection.

Polio

This shot protects against polio.

Who should get it?

  • Four doses are given to all children—one at age 2 months, one at 4 months, one at 6 to 18 months, and one at 4 to 6 years.
  • The first four doses may be given in combination with the diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), and Hib vaccines (DTaP-IPV-Hib).

Rotavirus vaccine

This immunization protects against rotavirus infection, which causes severe diarrhea.

Who should get it?

  • The rotavirus vaccine is recommended for children younger than 32 weeks. Children should get a total of 2 or 3 doses starting at around 6 to 14 weeks. More doses may be given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. It is swallowed rather than given as a shot.

Other immunizations

Your child's doctor or health professional may recommend other immunizations, depending on the recommendations in your province and whether your child is at higher risk than other children for certain health problems. Some of these other immunizations may include:

Hepatitis A (Hep A)

This shot protects against hepatitis A disease.

Who should get it?

  • Anyone 6 months of age or older who lives in a community where there is increased risk for hepatitis A or who will travel to a foreign country where hepatitis A is common.

What to think about

Some immunizations require more than one dose given at varying intervals. Although your child does not need to restart the series if a scheduled dose is missed, the immunization should be given as soon as possible.

Ask your health professional or local health unit for detailed information about whether your child needs a specific immunization and for the schedule used in your province or territory.

Combination vaccines may be preferred to separate shots because they reduce the number of needle pricks.

Keeping good immunization records

It is important to keep accurate records of immunizations, including any reactions to the vaccines. When you enroll your child in daycare or school, you may need to show proof of immunizations. Also, your child may need the record later in life for university, employment, or travel.

  • Know when each immunization should be scheduled, and put reminder notes on your calendar. You also may want to ask your doctor to send you notices when immunizations are due.
  • Have your doctor go over your child's immunization record with you during each office visit.
  • Keep the record in a safe place, and never throw it away. It is an important part of your child's lifelong medical records.

The immunization schedule in your province may be different than the National Childhood Immunization Record( What is a PDF document? ) recommended by the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Visit your provincial ministry of health website for the recommended schedule in your province.

Immunization safety

You may worry that immunizations are dangerous if given when your child has a cold or other minor illness. Talk to your child's doctor if you have concerns about the timing of immunizations. Immunizations can usually still be given during a mild illness, while medicines are being taken, and in other situations where a child may not be in perfect health. Also, getting several vaccines at the same time is as safe as getting one shot at a time.footnote 10 There are very few reasons for which doctors suggest that a person postpone or not get an immunization.

Some parents fear that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine may cause their child to develop autism. Misleading stories about the MMR shot and autism have circulated through websites, the media, and word of mouth. But scientific studies have found no connection between autism and the vaccine.footnote 6

For more information about vaccine safety studies and vaccine side effects, see the topic Immunization Safety.

Adolescent Immunizations

Recommended immunizations

Adolescents need certain immunizations and booster shots for ongoing protection (immunity) against diseases. Consult your health professional or public health office if your child missed an immunization or if you need to find out whether your child needs a certain one.

The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends a specific immunization schedule for children and adolescents.footnote 13 But recommendations may also come from the Canadian Pediatric Society (CPS) or your provincial or territorial ministry of health. Immunization schedules may vary in each province and territory. Visit www.immunizealberta.ca for information about immunizations in Alberta.

Immunizations recommended for adolescents include the following.

For more information about influenza, see the topic Influenza (Seasonal Flu). For the most current Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines, go to www.fightflu.ca.

Other immunizations

Some adolescents may need or want more immunizations for situations that increase a person's risk for exposure to disease, such as health problems or travelling to other countries. They may have missed immunizations when they were younger. Or a vaccine may not have been offered when they were younger. These immunizations may include:

Immunization safety

Most side effects from vaccines are minor, if they occur at all. The healthcare provider may have your child stay in the office for up to 15 minutes after the vaccines are given, to watch for any reactions.

You may worry that immunizations are dangerous if they are given when your child has a cold or other minor illness. In most cases, your child can still have immunizations even if they have a mild illness, are taking medicines, or have other health problems. There are very few reasons for which healthcare providers suggest that a person postpone or not get an immunization. If you have questions, call Health Link at 811. Your child’s doctor or public health nurse can also let you know if your child needs to wait before they have an immunization.

For more information about vaccine safety studies and vaccine side effects, see the topic Immunization Safety or go to ImmunizeAlberta.ca.

Keeping Good Records
It’s important to keep good records of immunizations. Always ask for a record when your child is immunized. Keep the record in a safe place. Don’t throw it away. You may be asked to show these records by your child’s school or daycare. Your child might also need these records for university, work, or travel.

Keep track of when your child needs immunizations. Put reminders on your calendar or in your phone.

Ask your doctor to review your child's immunization records at appointments.

Adult Immunizations

Recommended immunizations

Your need for immunizations does not end when you reach adulthood. The immunizations you need depend on:

  • your lifestyle
  • your overall health
  • if you’re pregnant
  • where you travel
  • who you have close contact with
  • the vaccines you had as a child

The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends immunization schedules for the general adult population and adults with medical conditions (including pregnancy).footnote 13 Recommendations vary in each province and territory. For Alberta-specific recommendations, visit www.immunizealberta.ca. Your healthcare provider will consider your medical and immunization history (and documentation) when deciding which vaccines you need.

For more information about influenza, see the topic Influenza (Seasonal Flu). For the most current Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines, go to canada.ca/flu.

Other immunizations

Immunizations and pregnancy

Before you become pregnant, discuss your immunization history with your health professional. Your immunity protects both you and your baby. Some vaccines (such as the ones for influenza (flu) and dTap) can be given during pregnancy. You need 1 dose of the influenza vaccine each influenza season. If you’re pregnant, you should get the dTap vaccine even if you’ve had it before. In Alberta, dTap is recommended in every pregnancy, usually between 27 and 32 weeks. Other vaccines need to be given before or soon after pregnancy.

If you are pregnant, your children should still get their immunizations on schedule. You do not need to speed up or delay your other children's immunizations.

Immunization safety

You may worry that immunizations are dangerous if they are given when you have a cold or other minor illness. In most cases, you can still have immunizations even if you have a mild illness, are taking medicines, or have other health problems. There are very few reasons for which healthcare providers suggest that a person postpone or not get an immunization. If you have questions, call Health Link at 811. Your doctor or public health nurse can also let you know if you need to wait before you have an immunization.

For more information about vaccine safety studies and vaccine side effects, see the topic Immunization Safety or go to ImmunizeAlberta.ca.

Keeping Good Records
It’s important to keep good records of immunizations. Always ask for a record when you are immunized. Keep the record in a safe place. Don’t throw it away. Keep track of when you need immunizations. Put reminders on your calendar or in your phone. Ask your doctor to review your immunization records at appointments.

Travel Immunizations

Recommended immunizations

Talk with your health professional months in advance of a trip to find out whether any immunizations are recommended. Certain things, such as your age and health, where you are going, and the length of your stay, affect your risk of disease and your need for immunization.

Your age and health

People with certain medical conditions, such as immune system problems, may have different immunization recommendations than healthy people. Also, young children who are travelling may need to receive their routine immunizations sooner than normally scheduled.

Where you travel

In most developed countries (including the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and western and northern European countries), the risk of exposure to serious diseases is generally no greater than it is in Canada.

The risk of exposure to serious disease may be much higher in developing countries (such as those in most parts of Africa and Asia and many parts of South and Central America) than it is in most developed countries. This is especially true for areas with poor sanitation (for example, poor water and food handling). For example:

The need for these vaccines depends on your immunization history, the specific area you plan to visit, the time of year, and whether any outbreaks of disease have recently occurred.

How you travel and types of activities

Certain activities or modes of travel increase your risk of exposure to disease. These include:

  • Exploring rural areas or those off the usual tourist route.
  • Taking backpacking trips.
  • Visiting people in another country.

Length of stay

The longer you stay in a country, the more exposure you have to local pathogens that could cause harm.

More information

You can get information about travel immunizations by:

For more information on immunizations and health related to travel, see the topic Travel Health.

Bioterrorism and Immunizations

The Canadian government has developed plans on how to respond to possible bioterrorism threats.

Certain diseases have been identified that pose the greatest threat to the Canadian public. At this time, there is a supply of anthrax and smallpox vaccines only. These immunizations are not currently available to or recommended for the general public. But the government has advised immunization for people at high risk of exposure to anthrax or smallpox, such as health care workers specifically designated to respond to a bioterrorism emergency. Some of these recommendations are listed below.

Anthrax vaccine

This shot protects against anthrax.

Who should get it?

  • This shot is for people who are at high risk of exposure, such as certain lab workers, people who work with imported animals where preventive standards are lacking (such as veterinarians who travel to work in other countries), and certain military members.

Six shots are given over 18 months. And booster shots are needed every year for continued protection (immunity).

Smallpox vaccine

This shot protects against smallpox.

Who should get it?

  • This shot is for certain health care and public health workers, infection-control specialists, and military members.

This shot is given once as several quick punctures on the upper arm, using a special prong device. Immunity after a first-time vaccination is likely to be 3 to 5 years. If you have been vaccinated in the past, successful revaccination may extend your immunity.

The Government of Canada has enough smallpox vaccine to vaccinate Canadians in an emergency.footnote 20

Visit the Public Health Agency of Canada's Emergency Preparedness and Response website at www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/emergency-preparedness-response.html for more information. For more general information about bioterrorism issues, see the topic Disasters and Other Public Health Threats.

When to Call a Doctor

Call 911 or other emergency services if you or your child develops any of the following symptoms:

  • An allergic reaction, such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, hives, hoarseness, paleness, weakness, a fast heart rate, or dizziness
  • Behaviour changes, such as passing out (losing consciousness), acting confused, being very sleepy or hard to wake up, or not responding to being touched or talked to
  • A seizure

Call your doctor if:

  • Redness and swelling at the site of the shot (injection) last longer than 48 hours.
  • Your child is 6 months of age or younger and has a fever of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher.
  • Your child has a fever for more than 72 hours (3 days).
  • Any unusual reaction occurs.

If a fever develops after an immunization, and you need to find out if you should call your doctor, see:

Talk with your health professional about whether you need special immunizations because you:

  • Are in close contact with people who have an infectious disease.
  • Have planned international travel, especially to developing countries.
  • Live with or visit a pregnant woman or baby.
  • Live with someone who has an impaired immune system.

Home Treatment

Help your child handle immunizations

Many immunizations are given as shots (injections). Your child may experience brief pain as the needle penetrates the skin or muscle. Some vaccines cause more discomfort than others. In general, you can help decrease your child's discomfort by making sure that he or she is physically comfortable and well rested before getting immunized. You can use home treatment measures to help relieve some of the common minor reactions to immunizations.

Relieve mild reactions to immunizations

You can help relieve some of the common, temporary, mild reactions to immunizations with basic home care.

  • Fever. A slight fever may occur after you or your child gets a shot. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) or ibuprofen (such as Advil) may help lower a fever. Follow the package instructions carefully. If you give medicine to your baby, follow your doctor or health professional's advice about what amount to give. Check with your doctor first if you are not sure your young baby's fever is related to getting immunizations. Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 18 because of the risk of Reye syndrome, a rare but serious disease. For more information on fevers, see the topic Fever or Chills, Age 11 and Younger or Fever or Chills, Age 12 and Older.
  • Swelling or redness. The area around the injection site may become red and swollen. Apply a wrapped ice pack or cool compress to the area for about 10 to 20 minutes. If this does not reduce the symptoms, acetaminophen or ibuprofen may help relieve the discomfort. Follow the package instructions carefully.
  • Fretfulness and poor appetite. For a few hours after getting immunized, a baby may be fretful and drowsy and may refuse to eat. Plan quiet activities at home for the evening after your child receives an immunization. Hold and cuddle your child when needed. Keep your home at a comfortable temperature, because your child is more likely to be fretful if he or she gets too warm.
  • Skin rash. A mild skin rash 7 to 14 days after your child gets the chickenpox or measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) shot. These types of rashes can last several days and go away without treatment.

For more information about reactions to immunizations, see When to Call a Doctor.

References

Citations

  1. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2006). Recommended immunization. In Canadian Immunization Guide, 7th ed. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada. Also available online: http://publications.gc.ca.
  2. Demicheli V, et al. (2008). Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4).
  3. Peacock G, Yeargin-Allsopp M (2009). Autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and vaccines. Pediatric Annals, 38(1): 22–25.
  4. Parker SK, et al. (2004). Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data. Pediatrics 114(3): 793–804.
  5. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2007). Thimerosal: Updated statement. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 33(ACS-6): 1–13. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/07pdf/acs33-06.pdf.
  6. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2006). Recommended immunization. In Canadian Immunization Guide, 7th ed. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada. Also available online: http://publications.gc.ca.
  7. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Statement on seasonal influenza vaccine for 2012–2013. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 38(ACS-4): 1–36. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/12vol38/acs-dcc-4/index-eng.php#Toc324425256.
  8. Canadian Paediatric Society (2004). Recommendation for the use of influenza vaccine for children. Paediatrics and Child Health, 9(7): 283–284. Also available online: http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/ID/ID04-01.htm.
  9. An expanded pneumococcal vaccine (Prevnar 13) for infants and children (2010). Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, 52(1345): 67–68.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book), 12th ed. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/index.html.
  11. Demicheli V, et al. (2008). Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4).
  12. Deeks SL, et al. (2017). Summary of the NACI update on the recommended use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Nine-valent HPV vaccine two-dose immunization schedule and the use of HPV vaccines in immunocompromised populations. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 43(6): 138–142. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  13. Public Health Agency of Canada (2015). Meningococcal vaccine. Canadian Immunization Guide. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/p04-meni-eng.php. Accessed January 8, 2016.
  14. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Update on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 38(ACS-1): 1–62. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/12vol38/acs-dcc-1/index-eng.php#a5.
  15. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Statement on seasonal influenza vaccine for 2012–2013. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 38(ACS-4): 1–36. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/12vol38/acs-dcc-4/index-eng.php#Toc324425256.
  16. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2006). Hepatitis B vaccine. In Canadian Immunization Guide, 7th ed., pp. 189–204. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.
  17. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2006). Pertussis vaccine. In Canadian Immunization Guide, 7th ed., pp. 257–266. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/p04-pert-coqu-eng.php.
  18. Naus M, et al. (2005). Interval between administration of vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 31(ACS-9): 1–6. Available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/05vol31/acs-dcc-8-9/9_e.html.
  19. National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2006). Recommended immunization: Immunization in pregnancy and breast-feeding. In Canadian Immunization Guide, 7th ed., pp. 107–112. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.
  20. Public Health Agency of Canada (2004). Emergency preparedness: Smallpox. Available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ep-mu/smallpox-eng.php.

Credits

Adaptation Date: 5/15/2020

Adapted By: Alberta Health Services

Adaptation Reviewed By: Alberta Health Services

Adapted with permission from copyrighted materials from Healthwise, Incorporated (Healthwise). This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any warranty and is not responsible or liable for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.