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Bronchoscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to look at your airway through a thin viewing device called a bronchoscope. During a bronchoscopy, your doctor will examine your throat, larynx, trachea, and lower airways.
This procedure may be done to diagnose problems with the airway, the lungs, or the lymph nodes in the chest. It may also be done to treat problems such as an object or growth in the airway.
There are two types of bronchoscopy.
It uses a long, thin, lighted tube to look at your airway. The flexible bronchoscope is used more often than the rigid bronchoscope. That's because it usually does not require general anesthesia, is more comfortable for the person, and offers a better view of the smaller airways. It also allows the doctor to remove small samples of tissue (biopsy).
It's usually done with general anesthesia and uses a straight, hollow metal tube. It is used:
Special procedures, such as widening (dilating) the airway or destroying a growth using a laser, are usually done with a rigid bronchoscope.
Bronchoscopy may be used to:
Procedures can be stressful. This information will help you understand what you can expect. And it will help you safely prepare for your procedure.
You may be asked to remove dentures, eyeglasses or contact lenses, hearing aids, wigs, makeup, and jewellery before the bronchoscopy procedure. You will empty your bladder before the procedure. You will need to take off all or most of your clothes (you may be allowed to keep on your underwear if it does not interfere with the procedure). You will be given a cloth or paper covering to use during the procedure.
The procedure is done by a thoracic surgeon or a respirologist and an assistant. Your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen level will be checked during the procedure.
A chest X-ray may be done before and after the bronchoscopy.
During this procedure, you will lie on your back on a table with your shoulders and neck supported by a pillow. Or you might recline in a chair that's like a dentist's chair. Sometimes the procedure is done while you are sitting upright.
You will be given a sedative to help you relax. You may have an intravenous line (IV) placed in a vein. You will be awake but sleepy during the procedure.
Before the procedure, your doctor will probably spray a local anesthetic into your nose and mouth. This numbs your throat and reduces your gag reflex during the procedure. If the bronchoscope is to be inserted through your nose, your doctor may also place an anesthetic ointment in your nose to numb your nasal passages.
Your doctor gently and slowly inserts the thin bronchoscope through your mouth (or nose) and advances it to the vocal cords. Then more anesthetic is sprayed through the bronchoscope to numb the vocal cords. You may be asked to take a deep breath so the scope can pass your vocal cords. It is important to avoid trying to talk while the bronchoscope is in your airway.
An X-ray machine (fluoroscope) may be placed above you. It provides a picture that helps your doctor see any devices, such as forceps to collect a biopsy sample, that are being moved into your lung. The bronchoscope is then moved down your larger breathing tubes (bronchi) to examine the lower airways.
If your doctor collects sputum or tissue samples for biopsy, a tiny biopsy tool or brush will be used through the scope. A salt (saline) fluid may be used to wash your airway. Then the samples are collected and sent to the lab to be studied.
Finally, small biopsy forceps may be used to remove a sample of lung tissue. This is called a transbronchial biopsy.
This procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia. You will lie on your back on a table with your shoulders and neck supported by a pillow.
You will be given a sedative to help you relax. You will have an IV placed in a vein. When you are asleep, your head will be carefully positioned with your neck extended. A tube (endotracheal) will be placed in your windpipe (trachea), and a machine will help you breathe. Your doctor will then slowly and gently insert the bronchoscope through your mouth and into your windpipe.
If your doctor collects sputum or tissue samples for biopsy, a tiny biopsy tool or a brush will be inserted through the scope. A salt (saline) fluid may be used to wash your airway. Then the samples are collected and sent to the lab for biopsy.
Bronchoscopy by either procedure usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes. You will be in recovery for 1 to 3 hours after the procedure. Following the procedure:
A bronchoscopy (either flexible or rigid) usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes. You will be in recovery for 1 to 3 hours after the procedure.
If you have general anesthesia, you will feel nothing during the procedure. Oxygen is usually given through a small tube placed in your nose if you are awake during the procedure.
You may be able to feel pressure in your airway as the bronchoscope is moved from place to place. You may gag or cough. Your airway will not be blocked. But if you feel discomfort, let your doctor know.
Bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. But your doctor will discuss any risks with you. Complications that may occur include:
If a biopsy was done during bronchoscopy, complications that may occur include:
Your doctor may discuss your results with you soon after the procedure. Test results on any biopsy samples are usually available in 2 to 4 days.
The large airway leading to the lungs and the breathing tubes in the lungs appear normal. There are no objects, thick secretions, or growths.
An object, thick secretions, or growths are blocking your airway.
Tissue sample shows a lung infection or disease, such as tuberculosis or lung cancer.
Current as of: March 9, 2022
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: Adam Husney MD - Family MedicineE. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal MedicineDavid C. Stuesse MD - Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery
Current as of: March 9, 2022
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine & E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal Medicine & David C. Stuesse MD - Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery
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