(say "lab-uh-rin-THY-tus") is a problem inside the inner ear. It happens when the labyrinth, a part of the inner ear that helps control your balance, gets swollen and inflamed.
is an inflammation of the vestibular nerve. The nerve is located in the inner ear. It carries signals that help with your balance from the inner ear to the brain.
The inflammation of either condition may cause sudden vertigo. This makes you feel like you're spinning or whirling. Labyrinthitis may also cause temporary hearing loss or a ringing sound in your ears.
The two problems have similar symptoms and treatment. But if you have both sudden vertigo and hearing loss, you need urgent care to rule out a stroke.
See pictures of the inner ear showing the labyrinth and an inflamed vestibular nerve.
The causes of labyrinthitis and vestibular neuritis are not clear. They can happen after a viral infection or, more rarely, after an infection caused by bacteria. The trigger may be an upper respiratory infection, such as influenza (flu) or a cold. Less often, they may start after a middle ear infection.
The infection inflames the vestibular nerve. This causes the nerve to send incorrect signals to the brain that the body is moving. But your other senses (such as vision) don't detect the same movement. The confusion in signals can make you feel that the room is spinning or that you have lost your balance (vertigo).
The main symptom of both labyrinthitis and vestibular neuritis is vertigo. Vertigo is not the same as feeling dizzy. Dizziness means that you feel unsteady or light-headed. But vertigo makes you feel like you're spinning or whirling. It may make it hard for you to walk. Symptoms of vertigo and dizziness may be caused by many problems other than labyrinthitis and vestibular neuritis.
Vertigo begins without warning. It often starts 1 to 2 weeks after you've had the flu or a cold. It may be severe enough to make you vomit or make you feel sick to your stomach. Vertigo slowly goes away over a few days to weeks. But for a month or longer, you may still get vertigo symptoms if you suddenly move your head a certain way.
Labyrinthitis may also cause hearing loss and a ringing sound in your ears (tinnitus). Most often, these symptoms don't last for more than a few weeks.
Your doctor can tell if you have labyrinthitis or vestibular neuritis by doing a physical examination and asking about your symptoms and past health. Your doctor will look for signs of viral infections that can trigger labyrinthitis.
If the cause of your vertigo is not clear, your doctor may do other tests, such as electronystagmography or an MRI to rule out other problems.
Most of the time, labyrinthitis and vestibular neuritis go away on their own. This normally takes several weeks. If the cause is a bacterial infection, your doctor will give you antibiotics. But most cases are caused by viral infections, which can't be cured with antibiotics.
Your doctor may prescribe steroid medicines, which may help you get better sooner. He or she may also give you other medicines, such as antiemetics, antihistamines, and sedatives, to help control the nausea and vomiting caused by vertigo.
Vertigo usually gets better as your body adjusts (compensation). Medicines like antihistamines can help your symptoms, but they may make it take longer for vertigo to go away. It's best to only use medicines when they are needed and for as little time as possible.
Staying active can help you get better. Check with your doctor about trying balance exercises at home. These include simple head movements and keeping your balance while standing and sitting. They may reduce symptoms of vertigo.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerAnne C. Poinier, MD - Internal MedicineDonald Sproule, MDCM, CCFP - Family MedicineE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineKathleen Romito, MD - Family MedicineKarin M. Lindholm, DO - Neurology
Current as ofMarch 28, 2018
Current as of: March 28, 2018
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
& Donald Sproule, MDCM, CCFP - Family Medicine & E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine & Karin M. Lindholm, DO - Neurology
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