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Hemolytic disease happens when substances called antibodies in the mother's blood cause red blood cells in her baby's blood to be destroyed. This can occur when the blood types of a mother and her baby do not match.
All blood has something called an Rh antigen (or Rh factor). This is what makes a blood type positive or negative.
You may have Rh-negative blood and your baby has Rh-positive blood. If the two mix, your body will make antibodies. This is called Rh sensitization.
Some babies need special care, such as being in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may be scary for you. But the hospital staff understands this. They will explain what happens and will answer your questions.
A newborn with mild hemolytic disease may have jaundice or anemia. Jaundice makes the skin and the white part of the eyes look yellow. Anemia happens when a lot of red blood cells are destroyed. In severe cases, jaundice, anemia, and swelling can be very dangerous or deadly.
Some babies with hemolytic disease may need to be delivered early. A very sick baby may need blood transfusions before birth, while still inside the mother, or after birth. In severe cases, a doctor can give blood to the fetus through the mother's belly.
Some babies may need other care, such as:
Follow-up care is a key part of your child's treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if your child is having problems. It's also a good idea to know your child's test results and keep a list of the medicines your child takes.
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Current as of: September 20, 2021
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine & John Pope MD - Pediatrics & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
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