Learning About Biliary Drain Care

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What is a biliary drain?

A biliary drain allows bile to flow out from a blocked bile duct into a collection bag outside the body. Bile is a liquid made by the liver. It helps digest fats. Blocked or narrowed bile ducts can stop the flow of bile and cause yellowing of the skin (jaundice) or an infection of the liver.

The drain is a thin plastic tube (catheter) that the doctor places in the bile duct. From there the tube passes out through a drain site on your skin and into a collection bag. The bag may be attached to a belt or strapped to the leg. About 0.5 to 1 L (2 to 4 cups) of bile will collect in the bag each day. The amount should be fairly constant from day to day.

The bile that comes out of the drain may look bloody at first, but it will soon change to its normal yellow-green colour.

How long the drain stays in place depends on what caused the problem with your bile duct. Your doctor will discuss this with you.

How can you care for your drain at home?

Your doctor or ostomy nurse can answer any questions you have about caring for your drain or bag.

Caring for the drain site

You may have a bandage on your skin where the tube comes out of your body. Your doctor will tell you how often to change it. To change the bandage:

  1. Wash your hands with soap and water.
  2. Take off the bandage from around the drain site.
  3. Clean the drain site and the skin around it with soap and water. Use gauze or a cotton swab.
  4. When the site is dry, you can put on a new bandage. First, cut a slit in the bandage, and then fit it around the drain site.

Caring for the tube

To keep the tube clear, flush it with sterile saline. Your doctor will tell you how and when to do this.

Caring for the bag

Empty the bile from your bag when it's about 2/3 full, or at least once a day.

  1. Wash your hands with soap and water.
  2. If your doctor requested it, make a note of the amount of bile in the bag.
  3. Open the drainage port at the bottom of the bag.
  4. Empty the contents of the bag into the toilet.
  5. Clean the drainage port with soap and water, and close it.
  6. Wash your hands again with soap and water.

If the bag breaks or tears, replace it as soon as possible.

When should you call for help?

Call your doctor or nurse call line now or seek immediate medical care if:

  • You have symptoms of infection, such as:
    • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness.
    • Red streaks leading from the drain site.
    • Pus draining from the drain site.
    • A fever.
  • There is a new or increasing yellow tint to your skin or the whites of your eyes.
  • You see a sudden change in the colour or smell of the drainage.
  • The tube is coming loose at the drain site.
  • You have new or worse nausea or vomiting.

Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor or nurse call line if:

  • Drainage stops coming out of the tube.
  • You do not get better as expected.

Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.

Where can you learn more?

Go to https://www.healthwise.net/patientEd

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