Meal planning can be a key part of managing diabetes. Planning meals and snacks with the right balance of carbohydrate, protein, and fat can help you keep your blood sugar at the target level you set with your doctor.
You don't have to eat special foods. You can eat what your family eats, including sweets once in a while. But you do have to pay attention to how often you eat and how much you eat of certain foods.
You may want to work with a dietitian or a certified diabetes educator. He or she can give you tips and meal ideas and can answer your questions about meal planning. This health professional can also help you reach a healthy weight if that is one of your goals.
Your dietitian or diabetes educator may suggest that you start with the plate format (also called the plate method) or carbohydrate counting.
The plate format is a simple way to help you manage how you eat. You plan meals by learning how much space each food should take on a plate. Using the plate format helps you spread carbohydrate throughout the day. It can make it easier to keep your blood sugar level within your target range. It also helps you see if you're eating healthy portion sizes.
To use the plate format, you put non-starchy vegetables on half your plate. Add meat or meat substitutes on one-quarter of the plate. Put a grain or starchy vegetable (such as brown rice or a potato) on the final quarter of the plate. You can add a small piece of fruit and some low-fat or skim milk or yogurt, depending on your carbohydrate goal for each meal.
Here are some tips for using the plate format:
With carbohydrate counting, you plan meals based on the amount of carbohydrate in each food. Carbohydrate raises blood sugar higher and more quickly than any other nutrient. It is found in desserts, breads and cereals, and fruit. It's also found in starchy vegetables such as potatoes and corn, grains such as rice and pasta, and milk and yogurt. Spreading carbohydrate throughout the day helps keep your blood sugar levels within your target range.
Your daily amount depends on several things, including your weight, how active you are, which diabetes medicines you take, and what your goals are for your blood sugar levels. A registered dietitian or diabetes educator can help you plan how much carbohydrate to include in each meal and snack.
A guideline for your daily amount of carbohydrate is:
The Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods tells you how much carbohydrate is in a serving of the food. First, look at the serving size on the food label. Is that the amount you eat in a serving? All of the nutrition information on a food label is based on that serving size. So if you eat more or less than that, you'll need to adjust the other numbers. Total carbohydrate is the next thing you need to look for on the label. If you count carbohydrate servings, one serving of carbohydrate is 15 grams.
For foods that don't come with labels, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, you'll need a guide that lists carbohydrate in these foods. Ask your doctor, dietitian, or diabetes educator about books or other nutrition guides you can use.
If you take insulin, you need to know how many grams of carbohydrate are in a meal. This lets you know how much rapid-acting insulin to take before you eat. If you use an insulin pump, you get a constant rate of insulin during the day. So the pump must be programmed at meals to give you extra insulin to cover the rise in blood sugar after meals.
When you know how much carbohydrate you will eat, you can take the right amount of insulin. Or, if you always use the same amount of insulin, you need to make sure that you eat the same amount of carbohydrate at meals.
If you need more help to understand carbohydrate counting and food labels, ask your doctor, dietitian, or diabetes educator.
Here are some tips to get started:
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
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Current as of: December 7, 2017
Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
& Rhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes Educator
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