A central venous catheter, also called a central line, is a long, thin, flexible tube used to give medicines, fluids, nutrients, or blood products over a long period of time, usually several weeks or more. A catheter is often inserted in the arm or chest through the skin into a large vein. The catheter is threaded through this vein until it reaches a large vein near the heart.
A catheter may be inserted into the neck if it will be used only during a hospital stay.
Central venous catheters are used to:
A central venous catheter can be left in place far longer than an intravenous catheter (IV), which gives medicines into a vein near the skin surface. Also, a central venous catheter allows a person to receive IV medicines at home.
There are several types of central venous catheters.
PICC line. A peripherally inserted central catheter, or PICC line (say "pick"), is a central venous catheter inserted into a vein in the arm rather than a vein in the neck or chest.
Tunnelled catheter. This type of catheter is surgically inserted into a vein in the neck or chest and passed under the skin. Only the end of the catheter is brought through the skin through which medicines can be given. Passing the catheter under the skin helps keep it in place better, lets you move around easier, and makes it less visible.
Implanted port. This type is similar to a tunnelled catheter but is left entirely under the skin. Medicines are injected through the skin into the catheter. Some implanted ports contain a small reservoir that can be refilled in the same way. After being filled, the reservoir slowly releases the medicine into the bloodstream. An implanted port is less obvious than a tunnelled catheter and requires very little daily care. It has less impact on a person's activities than a PICC line or a tunnelled catheter.
Possible complications from the use of a central venous catheter include:
Your nurses will teach you how to take care of your catheter. You will learn how to change the dressing and flush your catheter. Call your doctor if you have questions or concerns.
You can take steps at home to care for your catheter:
911 anytime you think you may need emergency care. For example, call if:
Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:
Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:
Other Works Consulted
Nealis TB, Buchman A (2011). Enteral and parenteral nutrition. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 6, chap. 10. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineAnne C. Poinier, MD - Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerBrian Leber, MDCM, FRCPC - HematologyWilliam H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Current as ofMarch 20, 2017
Current as of: March 20, 2017
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
& Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Brian Leber, MDCM, FRCPC - Hematology & William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
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