A healthy weight is a weight that lowers your risk for health problems. For most people, body mass index (BMI) and waist size are good ways to tell if they are at a healthy weight.
But reaching a healthy weight isn't just about reaching a certain number on the scale or a certain BMI. Having healthy eating and exercise habits is very important.
Staying at a healthy weight is one of the best things you can do for your health. It can help prevent serious health problems, including:
But weight is only one part of your health. Even if you carry some extra weight, eating healthy foods and being more active can help you feel better, have more energy, and lower your risk for disease.
In today's society, there is a lot of pressure to be thin. But being thin has very little to do with good health.
If you decide that you do need to make some changes, here are some steps to reaching a healthy weight:
One Woman's Story:
"The biggest key to my success is knowing that this is a process. It's not 'all or nothing at all.' It's a matter of making choices every day. One day I might decide to eat more than another day, and that's okay, as long as I'm paying attention. I finally realized it wasn't a time-limited thing. It became much more of a lifestyle change than a temporary diet. The idea that somehow I could go back to my old ways was just not there anymore."-Maggie
Read more about how Maggie changed her life and lost 23 kilograms.
Learning about healthy weight:
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Your first step to find out if you are at a healthy weight is to find out what your BMI, or body mass index, is and what your waist size is. For most people, these are good clues to whether they are at a healthy weight.
A healthy weight is one that is right for your body type and height and is based on your body mass index (BMI) and the size of your waist (waist circumference). If you are age 18 or older, use the Interactive Tool: Is Your BMI Increasing Your Health Risks? to check your BMI when you know your height, weight, and waist circumference.
The recommended weight range may be lower for some people. Talk to your doctor.
It's important to remember that your BMI is only one measure of your health. A person who is not at a "normal" weight according to BMI charts may be healthy if he or she has healthy eating habits and exercises regularly. People who are thin but don't exercise or eat nutritious foods aren't necessarily healthy just because they are thin.
After you know your BMI, it's time to look at your waist size.
Measuring your waist can help you find out how much fat you have stored around your belly. People who are "apple-shaped" and store fat around their belly are more likely to develop weight-related diseases than people who are "pear-shaped" and store most of their fat around their hips. Diseases that are related to weight include type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Measure your waist size with a tape measure. The tape should fit snugly but not press into your skin.
For most people, the goal for a healthy waist is:footnote 1
The goal for a healthy waist size may be lower for some people. Talk to your doctor.
In the underweight range on the BMI chart:
See your doctor to find out if you have a medical problem that is causing your low weight.
Within the recommended BMI range and your waist size is within the recommendations:
Your weight is not a problem for your health.
At or above the recommended BMI range and your waist size is higher than recommended:
See your doctor to find out if you have health problems that might be related to your weight.
You may need to change your eating habits and get more active.
In the overweight category on the BMI chart but your waist size is within the recommendations:
Your weight may be right for you. But you need to see your doctor to find out if you have health problems that might be related to your weight.
In the obese category on the BMI chart, no matter what your waist measurement is:
You may need to lose weight to be healthier, as well as change your eating and activity habits.
Your doctor may want to take another measurement, called a waist-to-hip ratio. This measurement is a comparison of your waist size to your hip size. A higher waist-to-hip ratio means that you are more "apple-shaped" than "pear-shaped" and therefore at a higher risk for weight-related disease.
Body fat testing is sometimes used to help find out if a person has a healthy percentage of body fat.
If you are in the overweight or obese category and your waist size is too high, it's important to talk to your doctor about weight-related health problems you may have, including:
If you have two or more of these health problems, your doctor may advise you to make some lifestyle changes and/or lose weight. He or she may also refer you to a dietitian, an expert in healthy eating.
If you're at a healthy weight but are still unhappy with your weight, you're not alone. Lots of people are.
It can be hard to be satisfied with how you look when TV and magazines show unrealistic images of what it means to be thin. Here are some things to think about:
When we say "genetic makeup," we're talking about everything you inherited from your ancestors, from the colour of your eyes or the shape of your toes to the way your brain works and the way your body stores fat.
Your genetic makeup has a very big effect on your weight. It affects:
The average Canadian meal contains too many calories. It also contains too much saturated fat, cholesterol, animal protein, salt, alcohol, and sugar.
It can be hard to make healthy food choices:
For more information, see the topic Quick Tips: Cutting Calories.
Being physically active is an important part of staying at a healthy weight.
A healthy lifestyle means:
Becoming more active and improving your eating habits are the two main ways to reach a healthy weight.
"I see it as a whole life change. I actually get mad at people when they say, 'You've been on a diet.' I'm not on a diet. I've never been on a diet. I just changed the way I eat. I changed the way I live."-Jaci
Read more about how Jaci lost 30 kilograms.
If you need to make some lifestyle changes to get to a healthy weight, you'll have more success if you first change the way you think about certain things:
For more on how positive thinking can help you, see:
"I finally realized it wasn't a time-limited thing. It wasn't like, 'Well, I'm going to be really good and stay on this food plan now until I get the weight off.' It was more a realization that, 'You know, at 62, if I want to weigh 59-61 kilograms, then I have to do these things.' I can't stop doing them just because I lose the weight. So it became much more of a lifestyle change than a temporary diet. The idea that somehow I could go back to my old ways was just not there anymore."-Maggie
Making any kind of change in the way you live your daily life is like being on a path. The path leads to success. Here are the first steps on that path:
Before you make lifestyle changes, ask your doctor to check your cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and blood sugar.
Keep track of your weight.
Have your cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar checked again after you have lost 5% to 10% of your weight or in 3 to 6 months. You can also check your blood pressure and blood sugar at home.
Another way to measure improvements is to look for changes in your fitness level. For example, are you able to walk longer and on more days than when you started? Can you climb a flight of stairs without getting as tired or out of breath? Do you have better strength and muscle tone? Do you have more energy?
Here's one person's list of barriers to taking a brisk 30-minute walk every day, along with some possible solutions.
I might be too busy.
I might get bored.
It might rain.
You can use a personal action plan(What is a PDF document?) to write down your goals and organize your support system.
Eating a healthy, balanced variety of foods is far more satisfying than following a strict weight-loss diet that leaves you feeling deprived and hungry. And healthy eating paired with increased activity is more likely to get you to a healthy weight-and keep you there-than dieting is.
Dieting may make you feel like a failure if you can't lose weight or stay on your diet. Instead of blaming the diets, people who are overweight tend to blame themselves. You may think, "If I could just stay on that diet, I would be thin." This doesn't take into account that your body has powerful regulators that affect your weight-things you can't do anything about. And if you've dieted again and again without success, you can get into a cycle of negative thinking-and even gain more weight.
When you go on a diet, you deprive yourself of food. For many people, that means being hungry most of the time and not having enough energy. It also can lead you to think about food all the time. So you're much more likely to overeat when you finally give yourself permission to eat. It's important to make healthy eating changes that you can keep doing, instead of dieting.
Many different diets and programs promise rapid weight loss but rarely work for the long term. Some might even be dangerous.
But what does healthy eating mean? Everywhere we turn, we get conflicting advice on what foods are good for our health. It can be hard to know where to start after you've decided to make a change.
Young children are good at paying attention to their body signals. They eat when they're hungry. They stop when they're full.
But as we grow older, and fast food, huge portions, and delicious snacks are everywhere, many of us start to ignore our body signals. We eat for other reasons-or sometimes without thinking at all.
You can ignore those body signals for a while, but they are powerful. And if you ignore them for a long time (by dieting, for example) you lose your ability to pay attention to them. You get out of practice.
Common triggers to eating when you're not really hungry are:
Identify your eating triggers by keeping an eating journal for a week or two. Write down everything you eat, plus the time of day and what you were feeling right before you ate.
After you understand why and how you eat, it's time to look at what and how much you eat.
Many people classify foods as "good" or "bad" based on their calorie or fat content and, sometimes, on how nutritious they are. But a healthy diet has room for all kinds of foods.
A healthy, balanced diet means getting the right amounts of:
Keep a food record
(What is a PDF document?)
, writing down everything you eat for a week or two. It will help you see which foods you need to eat more of and which foods you're eating too much of.
Just cutting back on the size of your portions can be a great way to get to or stay at a healthy weight-without giving up any of your favourite foods.
"Before I gained the weight, I wish someone said, 'portion sizes.' If you're not thinking about it, you go to a restaurant, you think you're getting a portion size. You're not thinking they're serving you six plates of food."-Jaci
Physical activity is key to improving your health and preventing serious illness. Experts say to do either of these things to get and stay healthy:
Being active in several blocks of 10-minutes or more throughout the day can count toward these recommendations. You can choose to do one or both types of activity.
If you're not active right now, you don't have to start out at this level. Instead, start small and build up over time. Moderate activity is safe for most people. But it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before you start an exercise program.
Regular moderate-intensity physical activity lowers your risk of:
Brushing your teeth and getting dressed are regular parts of your day, right? You hardly think about it.
It can be that way with physical activity too. With practice and repetition, you can make activity-whether it's formal exercise or an activity like gardening or walking the dog-so routine that it becomes something you just do because it's part of your day and you enjoy it.
Like any lifestyle change, changing your activity level may be easier if you have a plan. Set small goals. Be creative. For more information, see Getting to a Healthy Weight: Making Lifestyle Changes.
Don't wait until you are "thin" to do the activities you want to do. Just make sure to start slowly. If you aren't active at all, talk to your doctor first.
No matter what you do, the key is making physical activity a regular, fun part of your life. And as soon as you start seeing the results, you'll be even more motivated to keep doing it.
It's best to get some moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 2½ hours a week. Brisk walking is one kind of moderate activity.
But if you're not active at all, work up to it. For example, you may want to start by walking around the block every morning, or walking for just 10 minutes. Over time, you can make your walks longer or walk more often throughout your day and week.
Here's how you can tell if an activity or exercise is making you work hard enough:
You can also use the rating of perceived exertion scale.
Walking is one of the easiest and cheapest ways to get moving for most people. Keep track of the number of steps you take each day with a phone app or pedometer. Using it may motivate you to walk more in order to increase your total steps.
There are lots of reasons why you may have trouble getting more active. These are called barriers.
These barriers can range from "I don't have time" to "I'm too embarrassed."
Figuring out your barriers and how you will respond to them is a big step in planning the lifestyle changes that will lead you to a healthy weight and help you stay there.
For more information, see the topic Fitness: Getting and Staying Active.
Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Health Canada (2003). Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Health Canada). http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/H49-179-2003E.pdf. Accessed June 22, 2015.
Other Works Consulted
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Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2011). Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines For Adults. Available online: http://www.csep.ca/CMFiles/Guidelines/CSEP_PAGuidelines_adults_en.pdf. Accessed October 28, 2014.
Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (2015). Recommendations for growth monitoring, and prevention and management of overweight and obesity in children and youth in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(6): 411-421. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.141285. Accessed April 21, 2015.
Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (2015). Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, published online January 26, 2015. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.140887. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Lysen LK, Israel DA (2012). Nutrition in weight management. In LK Mahan et al., eds., Krause's Food and the Nutrition Care Process, 13 ed., pp. 462-488. St Louis: Saunders.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (2000). The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (NIH Publication No. 00-4084). Available online: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/prctgd_c.pdf.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (ODPHP Publication No. U0036). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/default.aspx.
Whitney E, Rolfes SR (2013). Energy balance and body composition. In Understanding Nutrition, 13th ed., pp. 229-251. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Whitney E, Rolfes SR (2013). The carbohydrates: Sugars, starches, and fibers. In Understanding Nutrition, 13th ed., pp. 94-123. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Whitney E, Rolfes SR (2013). Weight management: Overweight, obesity, and underweight. In Understanding Nutrition, 13th ed., pp. 259-291. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerAnne C. Poinier, MD - Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineKathleen Romito, MD - Family MedicineMartin J. Gabica, MD - Family MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerRhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes EducatorColleen O'Connor, PhD, RD - Registered Dietitian
Current as ofOctober 9, 2017
Current as of: October 9, 2017
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
& Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine & Rhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes Educator & Colleen O'Connor, PhD, RD - Registered Dietitian
To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise.org.
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