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Hepatitis C is a disease caused by a virus that infects the liver. In time, it can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure.
Many people don't know that they have hepatitis C until they already have some liver damage. This can take many years. Some people who get hepatitis C have it for a short time and then get better. This is called acute hepatitis C. But most people who are infected with the virus go on to develop long-term, or chronic, hepatitis C.
Although hepatitis C can be very serious, most people can manage the disease and lead active, full lives.
Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus. It is spread by contact with an infected person's blood.
You can get hepatitis C if:
In rare cases, a mother with hepatitis C spreads the virus to her baby at birth, or a health care worker is accidentally exposed to blood that is infected with hepatitis C.
The risk of getting hepatitis C through sexual contact is very small.footnote 1 The risk is higher if you have many sex partners.
You cannot get hepatitis C from casual contact such as hugging, kissing, sneezing, coughing, or sharing food or drink.
Most people have no symptoms when they are first infected with the hepatitis C virus. If you do develop symptoms, they may include:
Most people go on to develop chronic hepatitis C but still don't have symptoms. This makes it common for people to have hepatitis C for 15 years or longer before it is diagnosed.
Many people find out by chance that they have the virus. They find out when their blood is tested before a blood donation or as part of a routine checkup. Often people with hepatitis C have high levels of liver enzymes in their blood.
If your doctor thinks you may have hepatitis C, he or she will talk to you about having a blood test. If the test shows hepatitis C antibodies, then you have had hepatitis C at some point. A second test can tell if you still have hepatitis C.
When blood tests show that you have hepatitis C, you may need a liver biopsy to see how well your liver is working. During a liver biopsy, a doctor will insert a needle between your ribs to collect a small sample of liver tissue to look at under a microscope. You may also have imaging tests, such as a CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound, to make sure that you don't have liver cancer.
Experts recommend that nearly everyone who has hepatitis C receive treatment. Talk with your doctor about whether you should get treatment. Current treatments for hepatitis C almost always work.
Taking care of yourself is an important part of the treatment for hepatitis C. Some people with hepatitis C don't notice a change in the way they feel. Others feel tired, sick, or depressed. You may feel better if you exercise and eat healthy foods. To help prevent further liver damage, avoid alcohol and illegal drugs and certain medicines that can be hard on your liver.
Hepatitis C is a liver disease that is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus, a virus that lives in your liver cells.
You cannot get hepatitis C from casual contact such as hugging, kissing, sneezing, coughing, or sharing food or water with someone. You can get hepatitis C if you come into contact with the blood of someone who has hepatitis C.
The most common way to get hepatitis C is by sharing needles and other equipment (such as cotton, spoons, and water) used to inject illegal drugs.
Before 1992, people could get hepatitis C through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Since the early 1990s, all donated blood and organs are screened for hepatitis C in Canada, so it is now rare to get the virus this way.
The risk of getting hepatitis C through sexual contact is very small.footnote 2 The risk is higher if you have many sex partners.
If you live with someone who has hepatitis C or you know someone who has hepatitis C, you generally don't need to worry about getting the disease from that person. You can help protect yourself by not sharing anything that may have blood on it, such as razors, toothbrushes, and nail clippers.
Most people who are infected with hepatitis C—even people who have been infected for a while—usually don't have symptoms.
If symptoms do develop, they may include:
A hepatitis C infection can cause damage to your liver (cirrhosis). If you develop cirrhosis, you may have:
Many other health problems are linked with long-term cirrhosis. For more information, see the topic Cirrhosis. There also are many other conditions with similar symptoms, such as other liver infections and liver damage caused by drinking too much alcohol.
The incubation period—the time it takes for symptoms to appear after the hepatitis C virus has entered your body—is from 2 weeks to 6 months. But not all people have symptoms when they are first infected.
You can spread the virus to someone else at any time after you are infected, even if you don't have symptoms.
There are two phases of hepatitis C. The first form is called acute hepatitis C. It means that you recently became infected with the virus. The second form is called chronic hepatitis C. It which means that you have had an infection for more than 6 months.
Right after you are infected with hepatitis C, you enter the acute stage. Some people fight off the virus and never have any liver problems. But up to 85% of people who are infected will go on to have chronic hepatitis C.footnote 3
Most people have no symptoms right after they have been infected with hepatitis C. Your symptoms may be blamed on the flu. Since any symptoms are likely to go away in a few weeks, you may not know you have hepatitis C for a long time.
If you have an obvious symptom of hepatitis C, such as jaundice, or if you know you have been exposed to the blood of someone who has hepatitis C, you should be tested for hepatitis C virus infection.
Long-term hepatitis C often causes tiny scars in your liver. If you have a lot of these scars, it becomes hard for your liver to work well. About 25% of people who develop chronic hepatitis C eventually have more serious liver problems such as cirrhosis or liver cancer, usually over a period of 20 or more years.footnote 4
Certain things may help predict your risk for severe liver damage, such as how much alcohol you drink and the age when you were infected.
If the infection becomes so severe that your liver can no longer function (end-stage liver failure), having a liver transplant may be the only way to extend your life.
Certain things may increase your risk of becoming infected with the hepatitis C virus. Just because you are at risk for getting hepatitis C does not mean that you have the virus.
Many people do not know how they became infected with hepatitis C.
You can get hepatitis C from:
Sometimes people get hepatitis C from:
People born from 1945 to 1965 are 5 times more likely to be infected with hepatitis C than people born in other years.footnote 5
Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you have hepatitis C and you:
Call your doctor if:
Your family doctor or general practitioner can diagnose hepatitis C.
You may be referred to specialists who can diagnose the disease and provide further care:
Because many people don't have symptoms, it's common for people to have hepatitis C for 15 years or longer before it is diagnosed. Many people don't find out that they have the virus until they are tested for some other reason, such as when donating blood. The Canadian Liver Foundation recommends that all adults born from 1945 to 1975 should consider testing. People in this age group are more likely to have hepatitis C and not know it. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Care (CTFPC) recommends screening people who are at high risk or who received blood or blood products before 1992.
It is important to be tested for hepatitis C if you:
Before you have tests, your doctor will probably talk to you about the pros and cons of testing for hepatitis C so that you understand what having the virus means.
Your doctor will:
If your doctor thinks that you may have hepatitis C, he or she may order:
To check how well your liver is working, you may have:
If you have a hepatitis C virus test, you may also get tested for HIV.
Experts recommend that nearly everyone who has hepatitis C receive treatment. Talk with your doctor about whether you should get treatment. Current treatments for hepatitis C almost always work.
Being diagnosed with hepatitis C can change your life. You may need help and support to cope with the illness. For more information, see Home Treatment.
Most people who have acute hepatitis C don't get treated, because they don't know that they have the virus.
If a person knows that he or she may have been exposed to the virus—such as a health care worker who is stuck by a needle—acute hepatitis C can be found early. Most people who are known to have an acute hepatitis C infection get treated with medicine. In these cases, treatment may help prevent long-term (chronic) infection, although there is still some debate over when to begin treatment and how long to treat acute hepatitis C.footnote 6
It is common for people to live with hepatitis C for years without knowing they have it, because they do not have symptoms. So most people diagnosed with hepatitis C find out that they already have long-term, chronic infection.
Treatment with antiviral medicines can fight the viral infection and prevent serious liver problems like cirrhosis or liver cancer.
You will need to have routine blood tests to help your doctor know how well your liver is working.
Hospice palliative care is a kind of care for people who have diseases that don't go away and that often get worse over time. It's different from care to cure your illness. Its goal is to improve your quality of life—not just in your body but also in your mind and spirit.
You can have this care along with treatment to cure your illness. You can also have it if treatment to cure your illness no longer seems like a good choice.
Hospice palliative care providers will work to help manage pain and other symptoms or side effects. They may help you decide what treatment you want or don't want. And they can help your loved ones understand how to support you.
If you're interested in hospice palliative care, talk to your doctor.
Sometimes you may need to take a different combination of medicines if your first round of treatment didn't work very well. If it was not done before, your doctor may do a test to find out which genotype caused the infection. This may help the doctor choose a medicine that is more likely to cure the infection.
Severe liver damage caused by chronic hepatitis C usually takes 20 or more years to develop.
If your hepatitis C continues to get worse, it can cause your liver to stop working, a condition called end-stage liver failure. In this case, a liver transplant may be the only way to extend your life. But if you are drinking alcohol, are sharing needles to inject drugs, or have severe depression or certain other mental illnesses, liver transplant may not be an option.
Most people with chronic hepatitis C will not die from the disease. But 1 to 5 out of 100 people with severe liver damage from chronic hepatitis C will die because of the virus.footnote 7 Even if a liver transplant is done as a last possible treatment, there can be complications that lead to death. For more information about decisions to help prepare for death and dying, see the topic Care at the End of Life.
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but there are vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Your doctor may recommend that you have these vaccines to help protect you from more liver problems.
Researchers are working to develop other treatments, including gene therapy and medicines that help control the immune system.
There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. But you can reduce your risk of becoming infected:
If you have hepatitis C, you can help prevent spreading it to others:
Breastfeeding mothers who have hepatitis C can continue to breastfeed their babies, because hepatitis C cannot be spread through breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, try to avoid having cracked nipples, which might pose a risk of spreading the virus to your baby.
Some people who have hepatitis C don't notice a big difference in the way they feel. Others feel tired, sick, or depressed. The following are steps you can take at home that may help you feel better both physically and emotionally.
It is very common to feel tired if you have hepatitis C. If you feel tired, give yourself permission to do less and rest more. If possible, ask others to help out around your home or ask your employer for a shorter or more flexible work schedule.
Exercise if you feel up to it. Aerobic exercise can help you have more energy and may also improve depression. It is best to avoid any strenuous activities on the day after you receive peginterferon.footnote 8
Sometimes people with hepatitis C have a hard time eating. You may have no appetite, feel nauseated, or have different tastes than you are used to. Even if you don't feel like eating, it's very important to eat small meals throughout the day. Some people have nausea in the afternoon. If this happens to you, try to eat a big, nutritious meal in the morning.
If you have cirrhosis, it may not be a good idea to eat salty foods or foods that are high in protein. If you want to know more about which foods to avoid and which foods are good to eat, ask your doctor about meeting with a registered dietitian to discuss a healthy eating plan.
One of the most important jobs of your liver is to break down drugs and alcohol. If you have hepatitis C, one of the best things you can do is to avoid substances that may harm your liver, such as alcohol and illegal drugs. If you have cirrhosis, you also may need to avoid certain medicines.
If you use illegal drugs or drink alcohol, it is important to stop. Being honest with your doctor about your drug and alcohol use will help you deal with any substance abuse problems. If you don't feel that you can talk openly with your doctor, you may want to find a doctor you feel more comfortable with. If you want to stop using drugs or alcohol and need help to do so, ask your doctor or someone else you trust about drug and alcohol treatment options.
Because many medicines can stress your liver, talk to your doctor before you take any prescription or over-the-counter medicines. This includes herbal remedies as well.
If you have itchy skin, ask your doctor about taking non-prescription medicines, such as diphenhydramine (for example, Benadryl) or chlorpheniramine (for example, Chlor-Tripolon), to relieve itching. If you do take these medicines, be sure to follow the instructions and to stop using the medicine if you have any side effects.
You may feel angry or depressed about having to live with a long-term, serious disease. You may have a hard time knowing how to tell other people that you have the virus. It can be helpful to talk with a social worker or counsellor about what having the disease means to you. You also may want to find a support group for people with hepatitis C. If you don't have a support group in your area, there are several on the Internet.
Depression may develop in anyone who has a long-term illness. It also can be a side effect of antiviral medicines for hepatitis C. If you are feeling depressed, talk to your doctor about antidepressant medicines and/or counselling. For more information, see the topic Depression.
Learning about hepatitis C may help you feel more in control of the disease. The more you understand, the better you can make decisions about treatment and lifestyle changes that may help you feel better, both physically and emotionally.
Most people who are known to have an acute hepatitis C infection get treated with antiviral medicine if the infection does not clear up on its own. Treatment for acute hepatitis C may help prevent long-term (chronic) infection, although there is still some debate over when to begin treatment and how long to treat acute hepatitis C.
Antiviral medicines also are used to treat long-term (chronic) hepatitis C. These medicines can help prevent the hepatitis C virus from damaging your liver.
Current treatments for hepatitis C are very good at permanently lowering the amount of virus in the blood, and they almost always work.
If you have tried interferon in the past and didn't get good results, talk to a doctor who is a liver specialist (hepatologist). He or she will be able to tell you about other antiviral medicines that may be more effective.
If chronic hepatitis C damages your liver so severely that it no longer works well (end-stage liver failure), you may need a liver transplant to extend your life. Liver transplants aren't common.
A liver transplant is the only surgical treatment that can help people with end-stage liver failure.
Liver transplantation is a risky procedure. And donor organs are hard to get. Most of the time, only people who are in good health (other than having liver disease) are considered for a transplant. You will not be considered if you are drinking alcohol, using illegal drugs, or have certain mental health problems.
After a liver transplant, you will need lifelong follow-up care by a specialist. You also will need to take immunosuppressant medicine to keep your body from rejecting the new liver. This medicine may cause other problems.
Some people seek out complementary medicines or alternative ways to treat their hepatitis C. At this time, no complementary or alternative medicines have been proved to reduce symptoms or cure hepatitis C. In fact, some herbal therapies (such as kava) may actually damage the liver.footnote 9
Rigorous studies of the herb milk thistle show that it does not protect the liver from damage.footnote 10, footnote 11 Talk to your doctor if you are thinking about trying milk thistle or any other complementary therapy to treat hepatitis C.
CitationsTerrault NA, et al. (2013). Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: The HCV Partners Study. Hepatology, 57(3): 881–889.Terrault NA, et al. (2013). Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: The HCV Partners Study. Hepatology, 57(3): 881–889.Dienstag JL, Delemos AS (2015). Viral hepatitis. In JE Bennett et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1438–1468. Philadelphia: Saunders.Flamm SL (2003). Chronic hepatitis C virus infection. JAMA, 289(18): 2413–2417.Smith BD, et al. (2012). Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945–1965. MMWR, 61(RR-4): 1–32. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6104a1.htm.Wiegand J, et al. (2006). Early monotherapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b for acute hepatitis C infection: The HEP-NET Acute HCV-II Study. Hepatology, 43(2): 250–256.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Hepatitis C FAQs for health professionals. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm.Ward RP, et al. (2004). Management of hepatitis C: Evaluating suitability for drug therapy. American Family Physician, 69(6): 1429–1438.U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2009). Consumer advisory: Kava-containing dietary supplements may be associated with severe liver injury. Available online: http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm085482.htm.National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2012). Get the Facts: Hepatitis C: A Focus on Herbal Supplements (NCCAM Publication No. D422). Washington, DC: U.S. National Institutes of Health. Available online: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/hepatitisc/hepatitiscfacts.htm.Fried MW, et al. (2012). Effect of silymarin (milk thistle) on liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon therapy: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 308(3): 274–282.Other Works ConsultedCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). Guidelines for Viral Hepatitis Surveillance and Case Management. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/SurveillanceGuidelines.htm.Craxi A, Licata A (2006). Acute hepatitis C: In search of the optimal approach to cure. Hepatology, 43(2): 221–224.Everson GT, et al. (2008). Quantitative tests of liver function measure hepatic improvement after sustained virological response: Results from the HALT-C trial. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 29(5): 589–601.Mack CL, et al. (2012). NASPGHAN practice guidelines: Diagnosis and management of hepatitis C infection in infants, children, and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 54(6): 838–855.Maylin S, et al. (2008). Eradication of hepatitis C virus in patients successfully treated for chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology, 135(3): 821–829.Mohsen A, Norris S (2010). Hepatitis C (chronic), search date April 2008. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.World Health Organization (updated 2016). Guidelines for the screening, care, and treatment of persons with hepatitis C infection. World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/205035/1/9789241549615_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed May 17, 2016.
Current as ofJuly 30, 2018
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineBrian O'Brien, MD, FRCPC - Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineMartin J. Gabica, MD - Family MedicineW. Thomas London, MD - Internal Medicine, Hepatology
Current as of: July 30, 2018
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Brian O'Brien, MD, FRCPC - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine & W. Thomas London, MD - Internal Medicine, Hepatology
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