Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a procedure that replaces the aortic heart valve. It is done to treat aortic valve stenosis. In aortic valve stenosis, the valve between your heart and the large blood vessel that carries blood to the body (aorta) has narrowed. That forces the heart to pump harder to get enough blood through the valve. TAVI can help people feel better and live longer. TAVI is also called transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
In TAVI, the doctor uses a catheter to put in the new heart valve. Open-heart surgery is not done.
TAVI is a newer procedure. How well it works long-term is not known yet. And TAVI can cause serious problems. These include stroke, a heart attack during the procedure, or even death.
TAVI may be a good option for a person who cannot have surgery or for a person who has a high risk of serious problems from open-heart surgery. For example, you might think about TAVI if you are not healthy enough for an open-heart surgery. TAVI may not be a good choice if an open-heart surgery is likely to be successful. A team of doctors will use professional guidelines to decide whether or not TAVI is a good choice for you. Your personal feelings are also important. Talk to your doctors about your goals for treatment.
TAVI is often done through an incision (cut) in the groin. But sometimes a small cut is made in the chest. The doctor uses a tube called a catheter and special tools that fit inside the catheter. The doctor puts the catheter into a blood vessel and moves it through the blood vessel and into the heart. A specially designed artificial valve fits inside the catheter. The doctor then moves the new valve into the damaged aortic valve. The artificial valve expands and takes the place of the damaged aortic valve.
You may be asleep for the procedure, or you may get a sedative that will help you relax. The surgery usually takes about 2 to 3 hours. You will have to stay in the hospital for several days after the procedure.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
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Current as of: December 6, 2017
Brian O'Brien, MD, FRCPC - Internal Medicine
& Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine & E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Elizabeth T. Russo, MD - Internal Medicine
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