A ventricular septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect. Congenital heart defects are heart problems a baby is born with. These heart problems are usually diagnosed at or before birth.
The heart is a muscular pump with four chambers. The two bottom chambers-the left ventricle and the right ventricle-are separated by a wall of tissue called a septum. A ventricular septal defect is a hole in this wall.
A very small hole may not cause problems. It may close on its own.
When the hole is large, some of the blood may flow through it from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. So the heart may pump too much blood to the lungs. Over time, this can damage the lungs and weaken the heart.
Your baby may need special care, such as being in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may be scary for you. The hospital staff understands this. They will explain what happens and will answer your questions.
Your doctor may hear abnormal heart sounds, such as a heart murmur, when he or she examines your newborn.
Your doctor will order tests to find the cause of abnormal sounds or of symptoms. The most common test used to diagnose this defect is called an echocardiogram, or "echo" for short. It uses sound waves to make an image of your baby's heart.
Your baby may have other tests to find the problem, such as an EKG (electrocardiogram) or a chest X-ray. Another test may look at the amount of oxygen in the blood.
A fetal ultrasound, which looks at the baby's heart, may find this defect before birth.
If the hole is larger and the heart has to work too hard, a baby may have symptoms, such as:
Your baby may get medicines to help with symptoms until the hole can be fixed. Sometimes surgery is not needed if your baby improves as he or she grows.
A ventricular septal defect causes the heart to work extra hard, so your baby may need more food. Sometimes this can happen with more feedings. But sometimes babies need to be fed for a short time through a tube in the stomach.
If your baby still has symptoms after several months of treatment, your doctor may suggest surgery to close the hole.
Follow-up care is a key part of your child's treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if your child is having problems. It's also a good idea to know your child's test results and keep a list of the medicines your child takes.
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Current as of: December 6, 2017
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
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