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Avoiding Triggers With Heart Failure: Care Instructions

Your Care Instructions

Triggers are anything that make your heart failure flare up. A flare-up is also called "sudden heart failure" or "acute heart failure." When you have a flare-up, fluid builds up in your lungs, and you have problems breathing. You might need to go to the hospital. By watching for changes in your condition and avoiding triggers, you can prevent heart failure flare-ups.

Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse advice line (811 in most provinces and territories) if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.

How can you care for yourself at home?

Watch for changes in your weight and condition

  • Weigh yourself without clothing at the same time each day. Record your weight. Call your doctor or nurse advice line if you have a sudden weight gain, such as more than 1 kg (2 lb) to 1.3 kg (3 lb) in a day or 2.3 kg (5 lb) in a week. (Your doctor may suggest a different range of weight gain.) A sudden weight gain may mean that your heart failure is getting worse.
  • Keep a daily record of your symptoms. Write down any changes in how you feel, such as new shortness of breath, cough, or problems eating. Also record if your ankles are more swollen than usual and if you feel more tired than usual. Note anything that you ate or did that could have triggered these changes.

Limit sodium

Sodium causes your body to hold on to extra water. This may cause your heart failure symptoms to get worse. People get most of their sodium from processed foods. Fast food and restaurant meals also tend to be very high in sodium.

  • Your doctor may suggest that you limit sodium. Your doctor can tell you how much sodium is right for you. This includes limiting sodium in cooked and packaged foods.
  • Read food labels on cans and food packages. They tell you how much sodium you get in one serving. Check the serving size. If you eat more than one serving, you are getting more sodium.
  • Be aware that sodium can come in forms other than salt, including monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). MSG is often added to Asian food. You can sometimes ask for food without MSG or salt.
  • Slowly reducing salt will help you adjust to the taste. Take the salt shaker off the table.
  • Flavour your food with garlic, lemon juice, onion, vinegar, herbs, and spices instead of salt. Do not use soy sauce, steak sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, mustard, or ketchup on your food, unless it is labelled "low-sodium" or "low-salt."
  • Make your own salad dressings, sauces, and ketchup without adding salt.
  • Use fresh or frozen ingredients, instead of canned ones, whenever you can. Choose low-sodium canned goods.
  • Eat less processed food and food from restaurants, including fast food.

Exercise as directed

Moderate, regular exercise is very good for your heart. It improves your blood flow and helps control your weight. But too much exercise can stress your heart and cause a heart failure flare-up.

  • Check with your doctor before you start an exercise program.
  • Walking is an easy way to get exercise. Start out slowly. Gradually increase the length and pace of your walk. Swimming, riding a bike, and using a treadmill are also good forms of exercise.
  • When you exercise, watch for signs that your heart is working too hard. You are pushing yourself too hard if you cannot talk while you are exercising. If you become short of breath or dizzy or have chest pain, stop, sit down, and rest.
  • Do not exercise when you do not feel well.

Take medicines correctly

  • Take your medicines exactly as prescribed. Call your doctor or nurse advice line if you think you are having a problem with your medicine.
  • Make a list of all the medicines you take. Include those prescribed to you by other doctors and any over-the-counter medicines or natural health products you take. Take this list with you when you go to any doctor.
  • Take your medicines at the same time every day. It may help you to post a list of all the medicines you take every day and what time of day you take them.
  • Make taking your medicine as simple as you can. Plan times to take your medicines when you are doing other things, such as eating a meal or getting ready for bed. This will make it easier to remember to take your medicines.
  • Get organized. Use helpful tools, such as daily or weekly pill containers.

When should you call for help?

Call 911 if you have symptoms of sudden heart failure such as:

  • You have severe trouble breathing.
  • You cough up pink, foamy mucus.
  • You have a new irregular or rapid heartbeat.

Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:

  • You have new or increased shortness of breath.
  • You are dizzy or light-headed, or you feel like you may faint.
  • You have sudden weight gain, such as 1 to 1.3 kilograms in a day or 2 kilograms in a week. (Your doctor may suggest a different range of weight gain.)
  • You have increased swelling in your legs, ankles, or feet.
  • You are suddenly so tired or weak that you cannot do your usual activities.

Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor or nurse advice line if you develop new symptoms.

Where can you learn more?

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Care instructions adapted under license by your healthcare professional. If you have questions about a medical condition or this instruction, always ask your healthcare professional. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.