A colonoscopy is a test (also called a procedure) that lets a doctor look inside your large intestine. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called a colonoscope. The doctor uses it to look for small growths called polyps, colon or rectal cancer (colorectal cancer), or other problems like bleeding.
During the procedure, the doctor can take samples of tissue. The samples can then be checked for cancer or other conditions. The doctor can also take out polyps.
This procedure is done in a doctor's office or a clinic or hospital. You will get medicine to help you relax and not feel pain. Some people find that they do not remember having the test because of the medicine.
The doctor gently moves the colonoscope, or scope, through the colon. The scope is also a small video camera. It lets the doctor see the colon and take pictures.
A colonoscopy usually takes 30 to 45 minutes. It may take longer if the doctor has to remove polyps.
You need to clean out your colon before the procedure so the doctor can see all of your colon. You may start the cleaning process a day or two before the test. This depends on which "colon prep" your doctor recommends.
To clean your colon, you stop eating solid foods and drink only clear liquids. You can have water, tea, coffee, clear juices, clear broths, flavoured ice pops, and gelatin (such as Jell-O). Do not drink anything red or purple, such as grape juice or fruit punch. And do not eat red or purple foods, such as grape ice pops or cherry gelatin.
The day or night before the procedure, you drink a large amount of a special liquid. This causes loose, frequent stools. You will go to the washroom a lot. It is very important to drink all of the colon prep liquid. If you have problems drinking the liquid, call your doctor or nurse call line.
For many people, the prep is worse than the test. It may be uncomfortable, and you may feel hungry on the clear liquid diet. Some people do not go to work or do their usual activities on the day of the prep.
Arrange to have someone take you home after the test.
The nurses will watch you for 1 to 2 hours until the medicines wear off. Then you can go home. You will need a ride. Your doctor will tell you when you can eat and do your usual activities.
Your doctor will talk to you about when you will need your next colonoscopy. The results of your test and your risk for colorectal cancer will help your doctor decide how often you need to be checked.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
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Current as of: July 26, 2016
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
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