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A colonoscopy is a test (also called a procedure) that lets a doctor look inside your large intestine. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called a colonoscope. The doctor uses it to look for small growths called polyps, colon or rectal cancer (colorectal cancer), or other problems like bleeding.
During the procedure, the doctor can take samples of tissue. The samples can then be checked for cancer or other conditions. The doctor can also take out polyps.
This procedure is done in a clinic or hospital. You may choose if you want to have sedation medicine to help you relax. A colonoscopy can be comfortable without sedation. Some people get cramps (pain). Many people do choose to have sedation for the test. Some people find that they do not remember very much about the test because of the sedation medicine.
The doctor gently moves the colonoscope, or scope, through the colon. The scope is also a small video camera. It lets the doctor see the colon and take pictures.
You need to clean out your colon before the procedure so the doctor can see all of your colon. This process may start a day or two before the test. This depends on which "colon prep" your doctor recommends.
To clean your colon, you stop eating solid foods and drink only clear liquids. You can have water, tea, coffee, clear juices, clear broths, flavoured ice pops, and gelatin (such as Jell-O). Do not drink anything red, purple, or blue, such as grape juice or fruit punch. And do not eat red, purple, or blue foods, such as grape ice pops or cherry gelatin.
To clean out your colon you will need to follow a special diet and drink a large amount of bowel preparation (laxative) solution. This causes loose, frequent stools. You will go to the washroom a lot. It's very important to drink all of the colon prep liquid. If you have problems drinking the liquid, call your doctor or nurse call line.
Some people don't go to work or do their usual activities on the day of the prep.
Arrange to have someone take you home after the test.
The nurses will watch you for 1 to 2 hours until the medicines wear off. Then you can go home. You will need a ride if you get sedation medicine. After your test you can start to eat your usual diet, unless your doctor gives you other instructions. Avoid any activity that takes a lot of energy like hard exercise or heavy lifting. Your healthcare team will talk to you about when you can go back to your usual activity.
Your doctor will tell you when you can eat and do your usual activities.
Drink a lot of fluid after the test to replace the fluids you may have lost during the colon prep. But don't drink alcohol.
Your doctor will talk to you about when you'll need your next colonoscopy. The results of your test and your risk for colorectal cancer will help your doctor decide how often you need to be checked.
After the test, you may be bloated or have gas pains. You may need to pass gas. If a biopsy was done or a polyp was removed, you may have streaks of blood in your stool (feces) for a few days. If polyps were taken out, your doctor may tell you to avoid taking aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for 7 to 14 days.
Problems such as heavy rectal bleeding may not occur until several weeks after the test. This isn't common. But it can happen after polyps are removed.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
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Adaptation Date: 5/6/2021
Adapted By: Alberta Health Services
Adaptation Reviewed By: Alberta Health Services
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