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An iron test checks the amount of iron in the blood. Iron (Fe) is a mineral needed for hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Iron is also needed for energy, good muscle, and organ function.
About 70% of the body's iron is bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is bound to other proteins, such as transferrin or ferritin, or stored in body tissues. When red blood cells die, their iron is released and carried by transferrin to the bone marrow and to other organs such as the liver and spleen. In the bone marrow, iron is stored and used as needed to make new red blood cells.
The source of all the body's iron is food, such as liver and other meat, eggs, beans, and leafy green vegetables. The body needs more iron at times of growth (such as during adolescence), for pregnancy, during breastfeeding, or at times when there are low levels of iron in the body (such as after bleeding).
The iron test checks the:
A test for iron is done to:
Your doctor will give you specific instructions. This test is often done first thing in the morning.
A health professional uses a needle to take a blood sample, usually from the arm.
When a blood sample is taken, you may feel nothing at all from the needle. Or you might feel a quick sting or pinch.
There is very little chance of having a problem from this test. When a blood sample is taken, a small bruise may form at the site.
Each lab has a different range for what's normal. Your lab report should show the range that your lab uses for each test. The normal range is just a guide. Your doctor will also look at your results based on your age, health, and other factors. A value that isn't in the normal range may still be normal for you.
Values that may be checked include serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation.
The values for serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation are used to see if a low amount of iron in the body is from iron deficiency anemia or another condition. The values are also used to see if a high amount of iron is caused by hemochromatosis or another condition. Other conditions that affect iron, TIBC, and transferrin saturation levels include:
Adaptation Date: 8/15/2023
Adapted By: Alberta Health Services
Adaptation Reviewed By: Alberta Health Services
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