Autoimmune Disease and Diabetes
Autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes
The thyroid is a gland that makes hormones. These hormones affect how the body uses energy (metabolism). Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a group of health problems. They’re caused when antibodies that normally attack germs attack the thyroid instead. These antibodies can either turn on the thyroid (hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease) or turn it off (hypothyroidism, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). AITD happens in 15 to 30% of people with type 1 diabetes.
Screening and Tests
Thyroid disease is found with blood tests. These blood tests measure the levels of hormones, like TSH, T4, T3, and Free T4. If you have diabetes and thyroid/celiac disease, you may be at risk for other autoimmune disorders. Talk to your healthcare provider about this.
Effects on Diabetes
When the thyroid doesn’t work normally (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism), it can affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes.
Hyperthyroidism and Diabetes
Hyperthyroidism usually makes it harder to control blood sugar. The thyroid makes too much hormone, causing more sugar in the liver, which the intestines absorb very quickly. This causes insulin resistance, when the body doesn’t use insulin very well. That means a person with hyperthyroidism might need a higher dose of insulin.
Hypothyroidism and Diabetes
Hypothyroidism rarely causes big changes to blood sugar control in people with diabetes. The thyroid doesn’t make enough hormone, which can make insulin stay in the blood longer. That means a person with hypothyroidism might need a lower dose of insulin.
To see this information online and learn more, visit MyHealth.Alberta.ca/health/pages/conditions.aspx?Hwid=custom.ab_diabetes_thyroiddisease_inst.
Related to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Diabetes
For 24/7 nurse advice and general health information call Health Link at 811.
Current as of: October 21, 2020
Author: Primary Care and Chronic Disease Management, Alberta Health Services
This material is not a substitute for the advice of a qualified health professional. This material is intended for general information only and is provided on an "as is", "where is" basis. Although reasonable efforts were made to confirm the accuracy of the information, Alberta Health Services does not make any representation or warranty, express, implied or statutory, as to the accuracy, reliability, completeness, applicability or fitness for a particular purpose of such information. Alberta Health Services expressly disclaims all liability for the use of these materials, and for any claims, actions, demands or suits arising from such use.