Bariatric surgery is surgery to help you lose weight. This type of surgery is only used for people who are very overweight and have not been able to lose weight with diet and exercise.
This surgery makes the stomach smaller. Some types of surgery also change the connection between your stomach and intestines.
Bariatric surgery may be either "open" or "laparoscopic." Open surgery is done through a large cut (incision) in the belly. Open surgery may not be available in some areas. Laparoscopic surgery is done through several small cuts. The doctor puts a lighted tube, or scope, and other surgical tools through small cuts in your belly. The doctor is able to see your organs with the scope. There are different types of bariatric surgery.
The surgery is usually done through several small incisions in the belly. The doctor removes more than half of your stomach. This leaves a thin sleeve, or tube, that is about the size of a banana. Because part of your stomach has been removed, this can't be reversed.
Roux-en-Y (say "roo-en-why") surgery changes the connection between the stomach and the intestines.
The doctor separates a section of your stomach from the rest of your stomach. This makes a small pouch. The new pouch will hold the food you eat. The doctor connects the stomach pouch to the middle part of the small intestine.
The surgery is usually done through several small incisions in the belly. The doctor wraps a band around the upper part of the stomach. This creates a small pouch. The small size of the pouch means that you will get full after you eat just a small amount of food. The doctor can inflate or deflate the band to adjust the size. This lets the doctor adjust how quickly food passes from the new pouch into the stomach. It does not change the connection between the stomach and the intestines.
You may stay in the hospital for one or more days after the surgery. How long you stay depends on the type of surgery you had.
Most people need 2 to 4 weeks before they are ready to get back to their usual routine.
For the first 2 to 6 weeks after surgery, you probably will need to follow a liquid or soft diet. Bit by bit, you will be able to eat more solid foods. Your doctor may advise you to work with a dietitian. This way you'll be sure to get enough protein, vitamins, and minerals while you are losing weight. Even with a healthy diet, you may need to take vitamin and mineral supplements.
After surgery, you will not be able to eat very much at one time. You will get full quickly. Try not to eat too much at one time or eat foods that are high in fat or sugar. If you do, you may vomit, get stomach pain, or have diarrhea.
You probably will lose weight very quickly in the first few months after surgery. As time goes on, your weight loss will slow down. You will have regular doctor visits to check how you are doing.
Think of bariatric surgery as a tool to help you lose weight. It isn't an instant fix. You will still need to eat a healthy diet and get regular exercise. This will help you reach your weight goal and avoid regaining the weight you lose.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor or nurse call line if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
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Current as of: October 13, 2016
Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
& Brian O'Brien, MD, FRCPC - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine & Brent T. Shoji, MD - General Surgery
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